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Title: Characterization of portuguese centenarians eating habits, nutritional biomarkers and cardiovascular risk: a case control study
Authors: Silva, A. Pereira Silva
Valente, A.
Chaves, C.
Matos, A.
Gil, A.
Santos, A. C.
Gorjão Clara, J. P.
Bicho, M.
Keywords: Red meat
Cardiovascular risk
Eating habits
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: Background and Aims: Eating habits may contribute to longevity. We characterized the eating habits and cardiovascular risk (CVR) biomarkers in Portuguese centenarians (CENT) compared to controls. Methods and results: Centenarians (n=253), 100.261.98 years, were compared with 268 controls (67.513.25), low (LCR) and high (HCR) CVR (QRISK®2-2016). Anthropometric and body composition were evaluated by bioimpedance. Abdominal obesity, BMI and fat mass (FM) cut-offs, were WHO according. Sarcopenia was defined by muscle-mass index cut-off≤16.7kg/m2. Daily red meat intake, adjusted for age and gender, was sarcopenia protective (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.096-0.670, P=0.006), however contributes for FM excess (OR=4.946, CI95%=1.471-16.626, P=0.01), overweight and obesity (OR=4.804, CI95%=1.666-13.851, P=0.004). This centenarian’s eating habits (2%) contrasts to HCR (64.3%). The history of red meat (P<0.0001) and canned/industrialized food intakes (P<0.0001) were associated with HCR. Basal metabolism was lower in centenarians vs LCR/HCR (CENT=1176.78201.98; LCR=1356.54170.65; HCR=1561.33267.85; P<0.0001) as BMI (CENT=21,063.68; LCR=28.494.69; HCR=29.565.26; P<0.0001), waist-circumference (CENT=85.2910.83; LCR=96.0211.71; HCR=104.5011.84; P<0.0001) and hip-waist ratio (CENT=0.880.07; LCR=0.920.08; HCR=1.010.08; P<0.0001). CENT had lower total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL ratio than controls. Conclusions: Frequent consumption of red meat, cholesterol and heme-iron rich, may contribute to obesity and increased CVR. The low frequency of this consumption, observed in centenarians, although associated with sarcopenia, may be one of the keys to longevity.
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